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Wednesday, December 29, 2010

तू तेव्हा तशी...You, like that, like this...




Lyricis


:Aarti Prabhu
Singer:Hridayanath Mangeshakar
Music Director:Hridayanath Mangeshkar
Movie:Nivdung

गीतकार

:आरती प्रभू
गायक:पं. हृदयनाथ मंगेशकर
संगीतकार:पं. हृदयनाथ मंगेशकर
चित्रपट:निवडुंग


तू तेव्हा तशी, तू तेव्हा अशी
तू बहराच्या, बाहूंची

तू ऐलराधा, तू पैल संध्या
चाफेकळी प्रेमाची

तू तेव्हा तशी, तू तेव्हा अशी
तू बहराच्या, बाहूंची
तू नवी जुनी, तू कधी कुणी खारीच्या गं डोळयांची

तू तेव्हा तशी, तू तेव्हा अशी
तू बहराच्या, बाहूंची
तू हिरवी कच्ची, तू पोक्त सच्ची तू खट्टी मिठ्ठी ओठांची

तू तेव्हा तशी, तू तेव्हा अशी
तू बहराच्या, बाहूंची

तू तेव्हा तशी

Tuesday, December 28, 2010

जेव्हा तुझ्या बटांना...When the breeze blow your hair...



गीतकार : मंगेश पाडगांवकर
गायक : सुरेश वाडकर
संगीतकार : श्रीनिवास खळे



जेव्हा तुझ्या बटांना उधळी मुजोर वारा
माझा न राहतो मी हरवून हा किनारा

आभाळ भाळ होते, होती बटा ही पक्षी
ओढून जीव घेते, पदरावरील नक्षी
लाटांस अंतरीच्या नाही मुळी निवारा

डोळे मिटून घेतो, छळ हा तरी चुकेना
ही वेल चांदण्यांची, ओठांवरी झुकेना
देशील का कधी तू थोडा तरी इशारा

नशिबास हा फुलांचा का सांग वास येतो
हासून पाहिल्याचा नुसताच भास होतो
केव्हा तुझ्या खुषीचा उगवेल सांग तारा



Lyrics  : Mangesh Padgaonkar
Singer : Suresh Wadkar
Music  : Shrinivas Khale

Jevhaa tuzyaa battana udhalli muzor vaara
Maaza na rahato me haravun haa kinaara

Abhaall bhaall hote, hoti batata hi pakshi
Odhun jiv ghete, padravaril nakshi
laataas antarichya nahi moolli nivaaraa.

Dolle mitun gheto, chhall haa tari chuke naa
hi vel chandanyachi, othavari zukena
Deshil ka kadhi tu thoda tari isharaa

Nashibaas hya fulancha ka saang vaas yeto
Haasun Pahilyacha nustach bhaas hoto
Kevha tuzya kushicha ugavel saang taraa.


Meaning of some words and phrases.

बट - strings of hair falling on the forehead
उधळी - blow away
मुजोर (slang) - nuisance. egoistic, bad.
आभाळ - Sky
भाळ - Forehead
पदरावरील नक्षी - Design on the dress or (indian)saree.
लाटांस अंतरीच्या - Waves(as in sea) rising within.
निवारा - Remove, take away.




Sunday, December 19, 2010

I AM NOT ALONE !.....my first poetry


MyFreeCopyright.com Registered & Protected





When in the night I'm asleep.
I see wonderful dreams.
With a ring of morrow they are blown.
I am not Alone.
I am not Alone.
I am off to the office.
I rush to catch the train.
As usual, I miss my one.
I am not Alone.
I am not Alone.
Finally I board the train,
Which is not my one.
Place to keep a foot is none.
I am not Alone.
I am not Alone.

Once again I am late,
To reach the office gate.
The boss is standing with the gun.
I am not Alone.
I am not Alone.

For the bread and butter.
All the daily stunt.
To see the files stacked in ton.
I am not Alone
I am not Alone

We have many friends.
There's always a special one.
A time comes when he is gone.
I am not Alone
I am not Alone

You think she is made for you
And when she says I love you too.
No matter if stones at you are thrown.
I am not Alone.
I am not Alone.

When love is in the air.
The heart is beyond repair.
For two is enough one ice cream cone.
I am not Alone.
I am not Alone.

She loves me, u only guess.
One day she says. i love someone else.
Feelings are destroyed, which are sown.
I am not Alone.
I am not Alone.


In good times.
When success on me shines
I forget god's blessing that have grown.

I am not Alone.
I am not Alone.

In difficult times.
When life refuses to rhyme.
Why ask god no mercy is shown.
I am not Alone
I am not Alone
                                                                    



- by Bharat Bhankal

                                                                

Sunday, December 12, 2010

Tiger's Claw and the Battle of Pratapgad - वाघनखे



The Battle of Pratapgad which can also be described as 1st defence of Swarajya was a land battle fought on November 10, 1659 at the fort of Pratapgad near the town of Satara, Maharashtra, India between the Maratha King Chattrapati Shivaji Maharaj and Afzal Khan of the Adilshahi. The Marathas defeated the Adilshahi forces despite having fewer soldiers. It was their first significant military victory against a major regional power, and led to the eventual establishment of the Maratha Empire.


Shivaji held a commendable position in parts of Maval. The Adilshahi court wanted to curb his activities. Afzal Khan, a renowned general of Bijapur who had previously killed Shivaji's brother in a battle treacherously, was selected to lead an assault against Shivaji. He started from Bijapur in June 1659.

ADILSHAHI FORCES OF AFZAL KHAN
MARATHA FORCES OF SHIVAJI
Commanders and Leaders
Fazal Khan, Muse Khan, Manoji Jagdale, Sardar Pandhare, Ambar Khan
Netaji Palkar, Kanhoji Jedhe, Raghunath Pant Atre, Moropant Pingle, Tribak Bhaskar Sabnis
Army Strength
12,000 Adilshahi cavalry
10,000 infantry
1,500 musketeers
85 elephants
1,200 camels
80-90 cannon artillery
5,000 reserved infantry at Wai.
6,000 light cavalryheaded by Netaji Palkar
3,000 light infantry headed by Moropant Pingale
4,000 reserved infantry headed by Kanhoji Jedhe.


After starting from Bijapur, Afzal Khan began by destroying the temple of Bhavani at Tuljapur. He moved on to the Vittal temple at Pandharpur. He was trying to entice Shivaji out of the mountainous areas he occupied and onto the plains, where Khan's larger army trained and equipped for warfare on plain grounds would have an absolute advantage. Shivaji had encamped at Pratapgad, which, being located in a hilly area, was strategically advantageous for mountainous guerrilla warfare.
Unable to incite him to attack first, Afzal Khan moved his army to Pratapgad. As he had once been the subedar of Wai, he had experience with the geography of the region. He tried to bolster his position by obtaining the support of the militarily independent landlords of the region. Although they nominally acknowledged the sovereignty of the Adilshah, the powerful baron Kanhoji Jedhe, as directed by Shahaji, helped Shivaji to counter these moves and garner their support.

Adilshahi forces

Afzal Khan was assisted by the chieftains Sayyad Banda, Fazal Khan, Ambarkhan, Yakutkhan, Siddi Hilal, Musekhan, Pilaji Mohite, Prataprao More and many more commanders of note. His forces consisted of 12,000 select Adilshahi cavalry, 10,000 infantry and 1,500 musketeers. He was accompanied by 85 elephants and 1,200 camels. His artillery consisted of 80-90 cannons. Siddi of Janjira was approaching from the Konkan coast.

Maratha forces

Shivaji was assisted by Kanhoji Jedhe along with other Deshmukhs of Maval region namely Maral, Dhamale, Silimkar and Bandal. His cavalry was commanded by Netaji Palkar, and were placed in a forward position near the fort. Moropant Pingle was in command of 3,000 chosen infantry men, who were positioned in a densely forested area. Sambhaji Kavaji Kondhalkar, Yesaji Kank, Jiva Mahala and many other skilled military leaders were in charge of them. Kanhoji Jedhe assisted Shivaji directly along with other commanders. In the meantime, Shahaji(Shivaji's father) was ready in Bangalore with his army of 17,000 for a final Battle in case Shivaji and his forces were routed by Khan. He had warned Badi Begum of Adilshah that, if Afzal Khan and his Adilshahi forces killed Shivaji by deceit, then there wouldn't remain even a brick of the Adilshahi kingdom. These forces were being carefully watched by the Adilshah.

Combat of Shivaji and Afzal Khan


Shivaji sent an emissary to Afzal Khan, stating that he did not want to fight and was ready for peace. A meeting was arranged between Shivaji and Afzal Khan at a shamiyana (highly decorated tent) at the foothills of Pratapgad. It was agreed that the two would meet unarmed, but would bring ten personal bodyguards each. Nine of these guards would remain 'one arrow-shot' away from the pair, while a single bodyguard would wait outside the tent. Shivaji Maharaj chose Sambhaji Kondhalkar, Jiva Mahala, Siddi Ibrahim, Kataji Ingle, Kondaji Kank, Yesaji Kank, Krishnaji Gayakwad, Surji Katake, Visaji Murambak & Sambhaji Karvar for the meet. Nevertheless, both were prepared for treachery: Afzal Khan hid a katyar (a small dagger) in his coat, and Shivaji wore armour underneath his clothes and carried a concealed wagh nakhi in one hand.

Wagh nakhi (Tiger Claw)
As the two men entered the tent, the 7' tall Khan embraced Shivaji, swiftly drew his hidden dagger and stabbed Shivaji in the back. The dagger was deflected by his armour, and Shivaji responded by disembowelling the Khan with a single stroke of his wagh nakhi. Khan rushed outside shouting for help, and was defended by Krishanaji Bhaskar Kulkarni, his emissary, who was himself then killed by Shivaji. Kulkarni managed to injure Shivaji. Thereupon Afzal Khan's bodyguard Sayyed Banda attacked Shivaji with swords but Jiva Mahala, Shivaji's personal bodyguard fatally struck him down, cutting off one of Sayyed Banda's hands with a Dandpatta(Pata- a medieval weapon). (This event is remembered in a Marathi idiom: Hota Jiva Mhanun Vachala Shiva - 'Because there was Jiva, Shiva lived'). Afzal Khan managed to hold his gushing entrails and hurtled, faint and bleeding, outside the tent and threw himself into his palanquin. The bearers hastily lifted their charge and began moving rapidly away down the slope. Sambhaji Kavji Kondhalkar, Shivaji's lieutenant and one of the accompanying guards, gave chase and beheaded Afzal Khan. The severed head was later sent to Rajgad to be shown to Shivaji's mother, Jijabai. She had long wanted vengeance for the deliberate maltreatment of Shahaji (Shivaji's father) while a captive of Afzal Khan, and for his role in the death of her elder son, Sambhaji. Shivaji sped up the slope towards the fortress and his lieutenants ordered cannons to be fired. It was a signal to his infantry, hidden in the densely forested valley, to raid the Adilshahi forces.

Hand to hand combat of the forces

Maratha troops commanded by Shivaji's captain Kanhoji Jedhe, swept down on Afzal Khan's 1,500 musketeers; resulting in a complete rout of the musketeers at the foothills of the fort. Then in a rapid march, a section of Adilshahi forces commanded by Musekhan was attacked. Musekhan, Afzal Khan's lieutenant, was wounded and subsequently fled the field.
Meanwhile, Moropant led the Maratha infantry toward the left flank of Adilshahi troops. The suddenness of this attack on Afzal Khan's artillery at close quarters made them ineffective in providing artillery cover for the main portion of their troops. And as a result of this the rest of their troops rapidly succumbed to an all out Maratha attack. Simultaneously Shivaji's Sardar (captain), Ragho Atre's cavalry units swooped down and attacked the large but unprepared Adilshahi cavalry before they were able to be fully geared up for battle and succeeded in completely routing them in short order.
The Maratha cavalry under Netaji Palkar pursued the retreating Adilshahi forces, who were attempting to join up with the part of their reserve forces stationed in the nearby village of Wai. They were engaged in battle before they could regroup and were defeated prior to reaching Wai. The Adilshahi forces not withstanding the onslaught of the Marathas started retreating towards Bijapur. The Maratha army chased the retreating army and on their way captured 23 Adilshahi forts. In fact, the Adilshahi Killedar of the Kolhapur fort himself handed over the keys to the Marathas.

Aftermath


ADILSHAHI FORCES OF AFZAL KHAN
MARATHA FORCES OF SHIVAJI
Casualties and Losses
5,000 killed
5,000 wounded
3,000 imprisoned
Loss of artillery, 65 Elephants, 4000 Horses, 1200 Camels, jewels worth 300,000 Rupees, 1,000,000 Rupees, heaps of precious cloths, tents to the Marathas.
Loss of money and grain stored atWai.
1,734 killed
420 wounded.

Adilshahi forces lost their artillery, 65 elephants, 4000 horses, 1200 camels, jewels worth 300,000 Rupees, 1,000,000 Rupees, heaps of precious cloths, tents to the Marathas. They also lost their money and grain stored at Wai.
5,000 Adilshahi soldiers were killed and almost as many were wounded. 3,000 soldiers were imprisoned, and the remainder were allowed to go home in defeat. The Marathas lost 1,734 soldiers, while 420 soldiers were wounded.
As it was policy of Shivaji to humanely treat the defeated army, neither the men nor women were sold as slaves or molested. Wounded commanders were offered treatment deserving of their rank and either imprisoned or sent back to Bijapur. Some of the defeated Adilshahi generals like Siddi Hilal changed their loyalties and joined the Marathas to serve under Shivaji Maharaj. Two of Afzal khan’s sons were captured by the Marathas but were let off by the Shivaji Maharaj. Fazal khan (son of Afzal khan) and the Adilshahi soldiers with him who were badly injured were shown a safe passage out of the forest of Jawli by Prataprao More.
The sword of honour was presented to Kanhoji Jedhe for his invaluable and outstanding performance of service to Shivaji. The relatives of the killed soldiers were offered service in the Maratha army. Families without any male left alive to support the family were awarded pensions. Heroes of the war were rewarded with medals, kada (bracelets) and horses.
Khan's death dealt the Adilshah's rule a severe blow. A quarter of his territory, forts and a fifth of his army were captured or destroyed, while Shivaji doubled his territory, losing a tenth of his army, within fifteen days of the Battle of Pratapgadh.Shivaji maintained his momentum, sending cavalry towards Kolhapur, which succeeded in capturing seventeen forts, including the prestigious fort of Panhala. Cavalry was also sent towards Dabhol and Rajapur under the command of Doroji Patil, which was also successful in capturing forts in the southern Konkan.
This remarkable victory made Shivaji a hero of Maratha folklore and a legendary figure among his people. Having established military dominance and successfully beaten back a major attack by a powerful empire, Shivaji had founded the nucleus of what would become the Maratha Empire.




Content from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

SOME VIDEOS OF THE CONFRONTATION BETWEEN SHIVAJI AND AFZAL KHAN









Thursday, December 9, 2010

CHHATRAPATI SHIVAJI MAHARAJ - The greatest son India ever had.


Shivaji Bhosle (19 February 1630 – 3 April 1680), with the royal title Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj was a Maratha king from the Bhosle dynasty who founded the Maratha empire. Shivaji led a resistance to free the Marathas from Sultanate of Bijapur, and establish the rule of the Hindus ("Hindavi Swarajya"). He created an independent Maratha kingdom with Raigad as its capital, and fought against the Mughals to defend his kingdom successfully. He was crowned as Chhatrapati of the Maratha Kingdom in 1674.
He achieved the re-establishment of Maratha rule on their homeland after being ruled and dominated by various Muslim dynasties for few hundred years. He established a competent and progressive civil rule with the help of well regulated and disciplined military and well structured administrative organizations. The prevalent practices of treating women as war booty, destruction of religious monuments, slavery and forceful religious conversions were firmly opposed under his administration. Shivaji was a religious Hindu, and showed respect toward other religions. He also innovated rules of military engagement of that era. He pioneered "Shiva sutra" or Ganimi Kava(guerrilla tactics), which leveraged strategic factors like demographics, speed, surprise and focused attack to defeat his bigger and more powerful enemies.

Early life

Shivaji's father Shahaji Bhosale was the chieftain of a hardy band of warrior class mercenaries that served the Deccan Sultanates. His mother was Jijabai, the daughter of Lakhujirao Jadhav of Sindkhed. During the period of Shivaji's birth, the power in Deccan was shared by three Islamic Sultanates - Bijapur, Ahmednagar, and Golconda. Shahaji kept changing his loyalty between the Nizamshahi of Ahmadnagar, Adil Shah of Bijapur and the Mughals, but always kept his jagir (fiefdom) at Pune and his small army with him. Gomaji Naik Pansambal, a trusted master of state-Craft, was deputed by Lakhuji Yadavrao (Jadhav) to look after Jijabai. He remained with Jijabai and Shivaji throughout his life. He also was a master of sword. But most importantly, he advised Shivaji in making certain crucial decisions which had far reaching effects on the character of the Maratha empire.
Shivaji was extremely devoted to his mother Jijabai. Jijabai led a deeply religious, near ascetic life in virtual isolation. This religious environment had a profound influence on Shivaji. He carefully studied the two great Hindu epics, Ramayana and Mahabharata, by listening to recitations and story-tellings. The morality and spiritual messages of the epics made a great impression on him. He was deeply interested in religious teachings, and sought the company of Hindu and Sufi (a Muslim sect) saints throughout his life.
When Shivaji was a novice, a troop of Pathans - Afghan mercenaries - had approached Shivaji requesting enlistment in his service. Shivaji was hesitant, but Gomaji advised him to accept them into the service. This resulted in the secular character of the Maratha armed forces. All the communities enjoyed respect and fair treatment in his kingdom. Gomaji also taught the art of swordsmanship to Shivaji, and especially the effective use of lance, the characteristic Maratha weapon.
Shivaji drew his earliest trusted comrades and a large number of his soldiers from this region, including Yesaji Kank, Baji Pasalkar andTanaji Malusare. In the company of his Maval comrades, a young Shivaji wandered over the hills and forests of the Sahyadri range, hardening himself and acquiring first-hand knowledge of the land. By 1639, he commanded a hardy and loyal band of officers and soldiers.

Rule


Shivaji Maharaj was an able administrator who established a government that included modern concepts such as cabinet (Ashtapradhan mandal), foreign affairs (Dabir) and internal intelligence. Shivaji established an effective civil and military administration. He also built a powerful navy and erected new forts like Sindhudurg and strengthened old ones like Vijaydurg on the west coast.The Maratha navy held its own against the BritishPortuguese and Dutch.
Shivaji is well known for his benevolent attitude towards his subjects. He believed that there was a close bond between the state and the citizens. He encouraged all accomplished and competent individuals to participate in the ongoing political/military struggle. He is remembered as a just and welfare-minded king. He brought revolutionary changes in military organisation, fort architecture, society and politics.
Shivaji's approach to leadership was that of a champion for his people, he sought independence and self rule for his Vatan (Homeland). The Maratha's respected and looked up to his high ideals and noble character and were unwavering in their dedication to achieving these goals. Their loyalty and determination helped Shivaji to withstand, to cope and to finally overcome succeeding waves of, well co-ordinated and unrelenting enemy attacks and invasions spanning several decades. An example of this is how readily his men like Baji Prabhu Despande and others volunteered to face even the likelihood of certain death at Ghod Khind to help Shivaji continue the fight of independence - eliciting such heroism from followers cannot be mandated, it can only be inspired by, purity of character, noble and awe inspiring leadership and a truly shared vision for homeland.
He was also an innovator and an able commander, he successfully used effective tactics including hit-and-run, strategic expansion of territories and forts, formation of highly mobile light cavalry and infantry units, adaptation of strategic battle plans and formations, whereby he succeeded in out-manoeuvering, time and again, his vastly bigger and highly determined enemies. Towards the end of his reign he had built up the Maratha forces to be over one hundred thousand strong. He was able to effectively keep the Mughal forces in check and on the defensive while expanding his kingdom southwards to Jinji, Tamil Nadu. Shivaji Maharaj's kingdom served as a Hindu bulwark against Mughal powers within India. His brilliant strategic and tactical maneuvering on battlefields, acute management and administrative skills helped him to lay the foundations of the future Maratha empire in India.
Character
During his long military career and various campaigns his strong religious and warrior code of ethics, exemplary character and deep seated and uncompromising spiritual values directed him to offer protection to houses of worship, non-combatants, women and children. He always showed respect, defended and protected places of worship of all denominations and religions.
He boldly risked his life, his treasure, his personal well being and that of his family, to openly challenge his immensely larger enemies to defend and achieve freedom and independence for his country. He unflinchingly defied overwhelming odds stacked against him by the mighty Mughal Empire and the regional sultanates. He overcame and succeeded in the face of an unprecedented level of difficulties and challenges unrelentingly posed by his enemies.He did not spend any resources on projects designed for self-aggrandizement or vanity, instead he was propelled by his deeply held sense of Dharma (sacred duty) to his people and country.
A Maratha folklore tells of an event when Shivaji was presented a beautiful Muslim princess (daughter of amir of Kalyan, Maharashtra) as a trophy by one of his captains. Shivaji was reported to have told this lady that if his mother was as strikingly beautiful as she was, perhaps he would have been handsome as well. He wished her well and allowed her to return to her family unharmed and under his protection. In that instance, the true nobility of his character was plainly revealed to all that were present there.

Military



  • A standing army belonging to the state called paga;

Shivaji's genius is most evident in his military organisation, which lasted till the demise of the Maratha empire. He was one of the pioneers of commando actions, "Ganimi Kava" a term used for such a warfare, (though the term "commando" is modern). His Mavala army's war cry was 'Har Har Mahadev' (Hail Lord Shiva). Shivaji was responsible for many significant changes in military organization. These include -

  • All war horses belonged to the state; responsibility for their upkeep rested on the Sovereign.
  • Creation of part time soldiers from peasants who worked for eight months in their fields and supported four months in war for which they were paid.
  • Highly mobile and light infantry and cavalry were his innovations and they excelled in commando tactics;
  • The introduction of a centralized intelligence department, (Bahirjee Naik was the foremost spy who provided Shivaji with enemy information in all of Shivaji's campaigns, Vishwas Nana Dighe played an important role during the Battle of Pratapgad, and Vishwasrao Musekar provided important intelligence during the siege of Panhala)
  • A potent and effective navy.
  • Introduction of field craft viz. Guerrilla warfare, commando actions, swift flanking attacks;
  • Innovation of weapons and firepower, innovative use of traditional weapons like tiger claw or 'Vaghnakh'. 'Vita' was a weapon invented by Shivaji ;
  • Militarisation of almost the entire society, including all classes, with the entire peasant population of settlements and villages near forts actively involved in their defence.
Shivaji realized the importance of having a secure coastline and protecting the western Konkan coastline from the attacks of Siddi’s fleet. His strategy was to build a strong navy to protect and bolster his kingdom, he was also concerned about the growing dominance of foreign British India naval forces in Indian waters and actively sought to resist it. For this very reason he is also referred to as the “Father of Indian Navy”.


Forts of Shivaji

Shivaji constructed a chain of 300 or more forts running over a thousand kilometres across the rugged Western Ghats. Each were placed under three officers of equal status lest a single traitor be bribed/tempted to deliver it to the enemy. The officers (Sabnis, Havladar, Sarnobhat) acted jointly and provided mutual checks balance. Shivaji had control of 360 forts when he died.

Religion

Shivaji was a devout Hindu and he respected all religions within the region. Shivaji Maharaj had great respect for Warkari saints like Tukaram and Sufi Muslim pir Shaikh Yacub Baba Avaliya of Konkan. He also visited Mouni Maharaj at Patgaon (Bhudargad Taluka near Gargoti) in Kolhapur district.
Maharaj and Samarth Ramdas are said to have first met in 1674. Shivaji said to have requested Ramdas to shift his residence to a fort named Parali & establish his permanent monastery there. The fort was subsequently renamed Sajjangad. Shivaji frequently visited Ramdas to seek his blessings & advice regarding religious issues.
Shivaji allowed his subjects freedom of religion and opposed forced conversion. The first thing Shivaji did after a conquest was to promulgate protection of mosques and Muslim tombs.
He commanded the respect and fealty of the Muslims under his command by his fair treatment of his friends as well as enemies. Kafi Khan, the Mughal historian and Bernier, a French traveler, spoke highly of his religious policy. He also brought back converts like Netaji Palkar and Bajaji in to Hinduism. He prohibited slavery in his kingdom. Shivaji Maharaj applied a humane and liberal policy to the women of his state. There are many instances in folklore which describe Shivaji's respect for women, irrespective of their religion, nationality, or creed.
Shivaji's sentiments of inclusivity and tolerance of other religions can be seen in an admonishing letter to Aurangzeb, in which he wrote:
Verily, Islam and Hinduism are terms of contrast. They are used by the true Divine Painter for blending the colours and filling in the outlines. If it is a mosque, the call to prayer is chanted in remembrance of Him. If it is a temple, the bells are rung in yearning for Him alone.

Legacy

Because of his struggle against an imperial power, Shivaji became an icon of freedom fighters in the Indian independence struggle that followed two centuries later. He is remembered as a just and wise king and his rule is called one of the six golden ages in Indian history. School texts in India describe Shivaji Maharaj's rule as heroic, exemplary and inspiring and he is considered the founder of the modern Marathi nation; his policies were instrumental in forging a distinct Maharashtrian identity and infusing it with strong martial and moral traditions.
A regional sectarian political party, the Shiv Sena, claims to draw inspiration from Shivaji Maharaj. The World Heritage site of Victoria Terminus and Sahar International Airport in Mumbai were renamed Chatrapati Shivaji Terminus and Chatrapati Shivaji International Airport respectively in Shivaji Maharaj's honour, as have many public buildings and spaces in recent years. The School of Naval Engineering of the Indian Navy is named as INS Shivaji.
Shivaji was the greatest Hindu king that India had produced within the last thousand years; one who was the very incarnation of lord Siva, about whom prophecies were given out long before he was born; and his advent was eagerly expected by all the great souls and saints of Maharashtra as the deliverer of the Hindus from the hands of the Mlecchas, and as one who succeeded in the reestablishment of Dharma which had been trampled under foot by the depredations of the devastating hordes of the Moghals.
—Swami Vivekananda
Swami Vivekananda also said the following: "Shivaji was one of the greatest national saviours who emancipated our society and our Dharma when they were faced with the threat of total destruction. He was a peerless hero, a pious and God-fearing king and verily a manifestation of all the virtues of a born leader of men described in our ancient scriptures. He also embodied the deathless spirit of our land and stood as the light of hope for our future."

Accounts of contemporary foreign travellers

Many foreign travellers who visited India during Shivaji Maharaj's time wrote about him.
  • Abbe Carre was a French traveller who visited India around 1670; his account was published as Voyage des Indes Orientales mêlé de plusieurs histories curieuses at Paris in 1699. Some quotes:
"Hardly had he won a battle or taken to town in one end of the kingdom than he was at the other extremity causing havoc everywhere and surprising important places. To this quickness of movement he added, like Julius Caesar, a clemency and bounty that won him the hearts of those his arms had worsted." "In his courage and rapidity he does not ill resemble the king of Sweden,Gustavus Adolphus."
  • The French traveller Francois Bernier wrote in his Travels in Mughal India:
"I forgot to mention that during pillage of Sourate, Seva-ji, the Holy Seva-ji! Respected the habitation of the reverend father Ambrose, the Capuchin missionary. 'The Frankish Padres are good men', he said 'and shall not be attacked.' He spared also the house of a deceased Delale or Gentile broker, of the Dutch, because assured that he had been very charitable while alive."
  • Cosme da Guarda says in "Life of the Celebrated Sevaji":
Such was the good treatment Shivaji accorded to people and such was the honesty with which he observed the capitulations that none looked upon him without a feeling of love and confidence. By his people he was exceedingly loved. Both in matters of reward and punishment he was so impartial that while he lived he made no exception for any person; no merit was left unrewarded, no offence went unpunished; and this he did with so much care and attention that he specially charged his governors to inform him in writing of the conduct of his soldiers, mentioning in particular those who had distinguished themselves, and he would at once order their promotion, either in rank or in pay, according to their merit. He was naturally loved by all men of valor and good conduct."




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